Endothelial Progenitor Cells inhibit jaw osteonecrosis in a rat model: A major adverse effect of bisphosphonate therapy
Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) is a serious adverse effect of antiresorptive and antiangiogenic therapies. MRONJ is identified by chronic wounds in the oral mucosa associated with exposed necrotic bone. We hypothesized that zoledronic acid (ZOL) impairs keratinocyte and fibrobla...
|Published in:||Scientific reports Vol. 9; no. 1; pp. 18896 - 11|
|Main Authors:||Tamari, Tal, Elimelech, Rina, Cohen, Gal, Cohen, Talia, Doppelt, Ofri, Eskander-Hashoul, Lana, Zigdon-Giladi, Hadar|
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Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) is a serious adverse effect of antiresorptive and antiangiogenic therapies. MRONJ is identified by chronic wounds in the oral mucosa associated with exposed necrotic bone. We hypothesized that zoledronic acid (ZOL) impairs keratinocyte and fibroblast function and reduces soft tissue vascularization; therefore, treating MRONJ with proangiogenic cells may benefit MRONJ patients. The effect of ZOL and dexamethasone (DEX) on gingival fibroblasts and keratinocytes was investigated. In-vitro, ZOL inhibited fibroblast and keratinocyte proliferation, delaying scratch healing. In-vivo, exposed bone was detected at tooth extraction sites, mainly in ZOL(+)/DEX(+) rats; and was associated with significantly decreased soft tissue vascularization, serum-VEGF, and tissue-VEGF. Local injection of early and late endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) healed 13 of 14 MRONJ lesions compared with 2/7 lesions in the mesenchymal stem cells, and 2/6, in culture-medium group. The EPCs reduced necrotic bone area, increased serum and tissue VEGF levels. EPCs engraftment was minimal, suggesting their paracrine role in MRONJ healing. The EPC-conditioned medium improved scratch healing of keratinocytes and fibroblasts via VEGF pathway and elevated mRNA of VEGFA and collagen1A1. In conclusion, a novel MRONJ treatment with EPCs, increased vascularization and improved epithelial and fibroblast functions as well as cured the lesion.